"Benzodiazepines in clinical practice: consideration of their long-term use and alternative agents". Panic attacks themselves are not dangerous physically. The experiences generally provoke a strong urge to escape or flee the place where the attack begins ("fight or flight" reaction) and, when associated with chest pain or shortness of breath, a feeling of impending doom and/or tunnel vision, frequently resulting in seeking aid from a hospital emergency room or other type of urgent assistance. Foldes-Busque, G.; Marchand, A.; Landry, P. (Oct 2007). "Excess mortality in panic disorder. During an attack, it is not uncommon for the sufferer to develop irrational, immediate fear, which can often be dispelled by a supporter who is familiar with the condition. Schmidt NB, Woolaway-Bickel K, Trakowski J. Roy-Byrne PP, Stang P, Wittchen HU, Ustun B, Walters EE, Kessler RC (March 2000). , Anxiety is distinguished from fear, which is an appropriate cognitive and emotional response to a perceived threat. This misconception often aggravates or triggers future attacks (some are called Anticipatory Attacks). An evolutionary psychology explanation is that increased anxiety serves the purpose of increased vigilance regarding potential threats in the environment as well as increased tendency to take proactive actions regarding such possible threats. Other attacks may emanate out of nowhere or in specific settings e.g. Fifth, they allow themselves to be exposed to situations that provoke fear and anxiety. , The behavioral effects of anxiety may include withdrawal from situations which have provoked anxiety or negative feelings in the past. Berrocal C, Moreno FR, Cano J (2007). automatic prejudiced attitudes) can be amplified during intergroup interaction. Tillich argues that this anxiety can be accepted as part of the human condition or it can be resisted but with negative consequences.  This is in comparison with 61% (alcohol) and 7.9% (other psychoactive drugs)  of the general population who use alcohol and psychoactive drugs, respectively. Often the first attacks are triggered by physical illnesses, major stress, or certain medications.  CBT and one tested form of psychodynamic psychotherapy have been shown efficacious in treating panic disorder with and without agoraphobia. Terror, a sense that something unimaginably horrible is about to occur and one is powerless to prevent it, Fear of losing control and doing something embarrassing or of going crazy. It has also been found to exist as a co-morbid condition with many hereditary disorders, such as bipolar disorder, and a genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Despite the evidence pointing to the existence of early-onset panic disorder, the DSM-IV-TR currently only recognizes six anxiety disorders in children: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder (a.k.a. Another key pathway is the HPA axis, as mentioned above.  A meta-analysis showed that a high level of neuroticism is a risk factor for development of anxiety symptoms and disorders.
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