The majority here announces a substantive rule of law that will apply in any statute of limitation dispute. Finally, on this point, the City argues that because only the personal representative of the estate can maintain this action, the failure to join the personal representative within the statute of limitations period means that the court lacks jurisdiction over the estate, citing Sutton v. Hirvonen, 113 Wash.2d 1, 775 P.2d 448 (1989) and Murray v. Joe Gerrick & Co., 172 Wash. 365, 20 P.2d 591 (1933). RCW 4.20.020; Benton v. Associated Indem. Law Project, a federally-recognized 501(c)(3) non-profit. I do not believe either of those explanations would deter any court for the briefest moment from dismissing the lawsuit for lack of timely filing. The majority asserts the present case is different because in fact a lawsuit was filed on June 1, 1992. Counsel simply ran out of time to file the necessary paperwork to have Beal appointed before the statute of limitations ran. The complaint in the action was filed three years to the day after Fernandez's death, the last day of the three year statute of limitations period. The City maintains that in general there is no duty in tort to protect another person from the criminal acts of a third party, and that the only duty the City owed was a public duty, the breach of which cannot support a negligence action. *241 CR 17(a) provides that every action shall be brought in the name of the real party in interest and states: Where a state rule parallels a federal rule, analysis of the federal rule may be looked to for guidance, though such analysis will be followed only if the reasoning is found to be persuasive. This argument can, of course, be made virtually any time liability for third party criminal acts is at issue. A private ceremony will follow at Tahoma National Cemetery. 505, 529 (1987) ("[T]he drastic social and economic changes that have taken place since the public duty doctrine's birth in the nineteenth century warrant that it follow the doctrine of sovereign immunity into the `dustheap of history. "He credits the creek with giving him almost three decades of his life, and he wanted to give something back.". American Mobile Homes of Wash., Inc. v. Seattle-First Nat'l Bank, 115 Wash.2d 307, 313, 796 P.2d 1276 (1990). Thus, *243 express requirements of CR 15(c) are satisfied. Here, the following portion of the transcription of the 911 call contains the assurances relied upon: Contrary to the City's position, as in Chambers-Castanes express assurances were made that police would be dispatched to assist. SMITH, GUY, JOHNSON, ALEXANDER and SANDERS, JJ., concur.  The Court of Appeals was entirely correct in determining there was no honest, understandable or excusable mistake, indeed there was no mistake at all, in Beal's counsel's failure to name the proper party here. Before his death, he had been working with state Sen. Ken Jacobsen, D-Seattle, on a Vietnam Veterans Conservation Corps, his wife said, "to help show others the healing powers of working with the environment.". The City also reasons that no duty is articulable unless there is a duty to respond in a specific amount of time, and argues that as a matter of law a failure to respond within 22 minutes to a request for stand-by assistance is not a breach of duty. The majority asserts applying the current standard "undermines" the purpose of CR 17(a), which, the majority says, is to "protect the defendant against a subsequent action by the party actually entitled to recover and to expedite litigation by not permitting technical or narrow constructions to interfere with the merits of legitimate controversies." The City cites no authority for this proposition and, thus, it is not properly before us.  The following state cases have rejected the public duty doctrine: Adams v. State, 555 p.2d 235 (Alaska 1976) (abrogated the public duty doctrine in a negligent inspection case); Ryan v. State, 134 Ariz. 308, 656 P.2d 597 (1982) (abolishing the public duty doctrine in a negligent furnishment of police protection); Leake v. Cain, 720 P.2d 152 (Colo.1986) (abolishing the public duty doctrine in a negligent furnishment of police protection case); Commercial Carrier Corp. v. Indian River County, 371 So. Notice to the defendant does not defeat the mandate of a statute of limitation. The court concluded in Chambers-Castanes that explicit assurances of protection had been made. Ms. Fernandez told the operator that she had heard Fernando had been seen with a gun, though she did not know for sure if he had one. A. I know of no statute of limitation case, however, holding mere notice to a defendant a claimant intends to file a lawsuit excuses a late filing. RCW 4.20.020; Benton v. Associated Indent. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. CP at 117. The same cannot be said about assurances that future acts will occur. Rinke v. Johns-Manville Corp., 47 Wash.App. The motion was granted and an ex parte order entered authorizing amendment of the complaint. Finally, the City maintains that proximate cause is lacking as a matter of law for two reasons. 2d 1010 (Fla.1979) (abrogating the public duty doctrine in a highway case); Stewart v. Schmieder, 386 So. I would affirm the Court of Appeals and the trial court and dismiss the plaintiff's complaint as not having been filed within the statutory time limits for wrongful death actions. Where CR 15(c) is concerned, this court has held that if the plaintiff's delay in adding a party is due to inexcusable neglect, or a conscious decision, strategy or tactic joinder is not permitted. The City maintains that the only standard by which to measure the City's conduct is its average *246 response time for similar calls, about 29 minutes. Fed. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to the John Beal Memorial Fund, care of the River Glory Church. The complaint alleges that Beal was the personal representative of the estate of Ms. Fernandez. On July 19, 1989, attorney Stephen Smith obtained an order appointing John Beal guardian ad litem for Ms. Fernandez's three minor children. Mr. Beal had no formal environmental education when he began cleaning Hamm Creek. Chambers-Castanes, 100 Wash.2d at 285, 669 P.2d 451. JOHN BEAL, as Guardian, Appellant, v. THE CITY OF SEATTLE, ET AL., Respondents. Like the notice argument, the no-prejudice argument would not suffice to excuse a late filing in a case governed solely by the statute of limitation, as plaintiffs could almost always make such an argument if their late filing were reasonably close to the statutory time limit. See RCW 4.16.080. Separation of powers concerns and appropriate respect for the enactments of a coordinate branch of government restrain us from weakening those enactments by creating judicial exceptions to them. She went to a neighbor's apartment, from which they called 911. In August 1993, the City moved to vacate and dismiss the amended complaint. Yet for nearly three decades, Mr. Beal was one of Seattle's most aggressive and effective environmentalists. The same day, Smith moved ex parte under CR 15(a) to amend the complaint to name Beal as a plaintiff in his capacity as personal representative. John Beal, 37. The majority here gives further life to the ancient adage, hard cases make bad law. They were married 38 years and had four children. Almost single-handedly, Mr. Beal brought a moribund tributary of the befouled Duwamish River back to life.  Of course, the trier of fact may ultimately conclude that the City acted reasonably in the circumstances by not dispatching an officer in the time period before Ms. Fernandez was killed, and therefore did not breach any duty owed to her. The City maintains these requirements have not been met. Taylor v. Stevens County, 111 Wash.2d 159, 163, 759 P.2d 447 (1988); Chambers-Castanes v. King County, 100 Wash.2d 275, 284, 669 P.2d 451, 39 A.L.R. The City reasons she chose to be at her husband's apartment building, chose to wait outside, and chose to continue to wait. There was no difficulty in ascertaining the proper plaintiff here; the statute permitted only the personal representative to bring the wrongful death action. Corp., 195 Wash. 446, 449, 81 P.2d 507 (1938). 15(c), when the language concerning a change in parties was added, stating that the policy expressed in the rule applies by analogy to amendments changing plaintiffs. Similarly, in the context of CR 17(a) amendments, Washington courts have strongly suggested amendments to pleadings do not relate back unless the failure to name a proper party was an honest or understandable mistake. 217, 225, 920 P.2d 1235 (1996). Counsel for Beal did not make an honest, understandable or excusable mistake in failing *247 to have the personal representative of an estate pursue a wrongful death action as required by that statute.  In his affidavit of September 3, 1992, Beal's counsel stated he was not aware of the statutory requirement for the personal representative to be the real party in interest in a wrongful death claim until after he had filed the lawsuit on June 1, 1992. CP at 119. 64848-4. Petitioner argues that where addition or substitution of a party is concerned, CR 15(c) by its terms applies only to a change in defendants. View Photos. He also knew the appointment of the personal representative was required. As the City concedes, the duty which arises in a case like Chambers-Castanes (and argued in this case) involves express assurances which the plaintiff relies upon and the government fails to fulfill. Thus, while a motion to amend a complaint changing the capacity of the plaintiff may be resolved under CR 17(a), as in Fitch and Rinke, Haberman indicates the "inexcusable neglect" standard of CR 15(c) also applies where a change in plaintiffs is made. But the rule has other purposes. The Concord Elementary School in South Park planted the John Beal Memorial Garden several years ago in thanks. First, the City contends, it cannot be said that "but for" the City's acts the murder would not have occurred because the murder could have occurred at any time. A number of federal courts have been lenient in allowing relation back of amendments to complaints reflecting a change in the capacity in which the plaintiff brings the action. The average John Beal is around 64 years of age with around 48% falling in to the age group of 61-80. 233, § 9 (1972). 1, John Doe No. At the time the complaint was filed, however, Beal had not been appointed personal representative. The Advisory Committee Note to the amendment states that the sentence was added. Second, the City contends that any connection between the City's acts and the murder is too remote to impose liability, and thus legal causation is lacking. Meaney, 111 Wash.2d at 179-80, 759 P.2d 455. The City answered the complaint in *240 October 1992, but did not challenge Beal's capacity as a plaintiff. 401, 591 P.2d 719 (1979) (abolishing the public duty doctrine in the negligent issuance of a taxicab permit); Coffey v. City of Milwaukee, 74 Wis. 2d 526, 247 N.W.2d 132 (1976) (abrogating the public duty doctrine in a negligent inspection case); DeWald v. State, 719 P.2d 643 (Wyo.1986) (abolishing the public duty doctrine in a negligent police pursuit case).
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