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The construction is often referred to by the Latin term Accusativus cum infinitivo, frequently abbreviated ACI. The accusative case in Latin has minor differences from the accusative case in Proto-Indo-European (PIE). In grammar, accusative and infinitive is the name for a syntactic construction of Latin and Greek, also found in various forms in other languages such as English and Spanish. This is the origin of the construction in the modern Romance languages such as French: In English, the ACI construction occurs with verbs of wishing, saying and perceiving (e.g. In the framework of transformational grammar, this construction is known as exceptional case-marking. the gerundive + esse, indicate obligatory action in indirect statements, e.g. Note that the tense of the infinitive, translated into English, is relative to the tense of the main verb. Iūlia ; esse is the infinitive "to be.". The accusative case (called the objective case in English grammar) will most likely be encountered when studying a foreign language. I would like the President to be successful; I saw her go, I believe that to be true) as well as in causative clauses (e.g. Classical Latin tends not to use a conjunction equivalent to the English "that" to introduce indirect statements. It is also the equivalent of the Greek indirect statement introduced by ὅτι. Accusative case is the case used for a noun or pronoun which is the object of a sentence. For example, in the sentence 'I saw her,' 'her' is in the accusative case. Passive periphrastic infinitives, i.e. In grammar, accusative and infinitive is the name for a syntactic construction of Latin and Greek, also found in various forms in other languages such as English and Spanish. For example, translating the aforementioned example into Latin: Sē here is an accusative reflexive pronoun referring back to the subject of the main verb i.e. Future infinitives (subsequent infinitives) occur at a time after the main verb. Gāius dīcit litterās tibi scrībendās esse, "Gaius says that the letters ought to be written by you."[1]. Present infinitives, also called contemporaneous infinitives, occur at the time of the main verb. Latin indirect speech § Constructions with the infinitive, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Accusative_and_infinitive&oldid=906417496, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 July 2019, at 18:13. Take an example: "I'm gonna hit your face." Direct object, indirect object or an object of a preposition are in the accusative case. Accusative (accusativus): Direct object of the verb and object with many prepositions. Depending on the valency of the main verb in the sentence, English may use a full infinitive (with to) or a bare infinitive (without to). The verbs make, see and hear have the interesting characteristic of using a bare infinitive in the active voice and a full infinitive in the passive: In Spanish, the ACI is used in causatives as well (Me obligó a mirarlo "He forced me to look at him") and in perception verbs (Los vi caminar por aquí "I saw them walk around here"), but it is not permitted in other cases. Accusative case is known as objective case. In this construction, the subject of a subordinate clause is put in the accusative case (objective case in English) and the verb appears in the infinitive form. For example, the contemporaneous infinitive in this sentence. Rather, an accusative subject is used with an infinitive to develop the appropriate meaning. Nominative case is known as subjective case. grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. Latin prepositions that cause the succeeding noun to be in the accusative case. Subject and the subject complement of a verb are in the nominative case. Perfect infinitives (prior infinitives) occur at a time before the main verb. Other names. In this construction, the subject of a subordinate clause is put in the accusative case (objective case in English) and the verb appears in the infinitive form. Types. Usually translated by the objective with the prepositions "from, by, with, in, at." Among other uses, information may be given in this form to indicate indirect speech, also called indirect discourse. In late classical and Medieval Latin, the ACI gradually gave way to a construction with quod with the subjunctive. Among other uses, information may be given in this form to indicate indirect speech, also called indirect discourse. (grammar): case used to mark the immediate object (direct object) on which the action or influence of a … The accusative and infinitive is the usual grammatical construction by means of which Classical Latin expressed indirect statements, that is, statements which report what someone has said, thought, felt, etc. Originally it was the case that indicated the end or ultimate goal of an action. Pages in category "Latin accusative prepositions" The following 42 pages are in this category, out of 42 total. This was probably the more common usage in spoken Latin and is the form used consistently in Jerome's Vulgate, which reflects a colloquial style. Here, "your face" is the end or the ultimate goal of my hitting and so it goes into the accusative case. Ablative ( ablativus) : Used to show means, manner, place, and other circumstances. Whereas a direct statement would say. Accusativus. The accusative case is the case for the direct object of transitive verbs, the internal object of any verb (but frequently with intransitive verbs), for expressions indicating the extent of space or the duration of time, and for the object of certain prepositions. This is the origin of the Direct Object. She made me eat the vegetables; The teacher let him stand outside the classroom). Another example from the classical world: the Latin peto originally meant "I fly" … Nouns in the accusative case (accusativus) can be used: would still be translated "They said he was helping her," even though iuvāre is a present infinitive. The accusative case is used to show the direct object of a verb. 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