Schein (2007), in updating her research, observed results similar to the previous one conducted in the 5 countries, showing that, despite all legal, social and organizational changes, male managers were still associated with successful management. The interviewees confirmed such stereotypes. Although perceptions of women in the workplace are generally unfavourable, ironically, evidence across a range of studies suggests that female leaders are more likely than male leaders to exhibit behaviours related to leadership effectiveness. âIn the future, there will be no female leaders. San Francisco: Berrett Koehler, 1994. In contrast, women face a quandary, when they behave consistently with gender-role expectations, they are perceived to be likeable but weak (not leadership material). (Flavia). Journal of Leadership Education Volume 8, Issue 2 â Fall 2009 171 capable mentors. However, all the married respondents had a housekeeper, which helped in the household chores and, often, with looking after the children. (1996) confirmed the worldwide view that men are seen as natural leaders because they have more characteristics associated with leadership. I wanted to be considered one of the best. (Flavia), To get everyone on the same line, believing in the same vision. To attribute a woman’s success to external factors makes her an exception, as if this could not have happened without special circumstances. This is the sixth year of the Women in the Workplace study—in a year unlike any other. (1996) corraborate this point of view with their research “think manager - think male”, which analyzed responses of administration students in 5 countries (USA, UK, Germany, China and Japan). The fallacy of meritocracy lies in the false equality of social opportunities for both genders (BARBOSA, 1999), that is, it is not clear that men and women face different obstacles in their professional career. Acesso em:1 maio 2018. >. When an organization's performance is in decline, women are perceived to be more suitable leaders. [ Links ], SCHEIN, V. Women in management: reflections and projections. According to Eagly (2007), however, regardless of the situation, leadership is historically defined in masculine terms. While women do not come forward and stand up to discrimination and the unequal division of household chores and child care, women at the top will remain exceptions and isolated cases of success. Question: Select a female leader that faced challenges based on gender and whose circumstances would be different if the leader had been male. On the other hand, a sexist education presents to the child another reality and shapes their future life: I always wanted to work because I always saw my mother working. If the responsibilities around the house were more balanced, men and women could share the care of their children, giving them the opportunity to pursue their careers in the best possible way, while still providing a stable environment for their children. There are stereotypes and misconceptions that, if left unchecked and unaddressed, prevent women from gaining leadership positions, or can affect the way followers perceive a woman as a leader. Given these data, it is perhaps not surprising that although women make up 48 per cent of the labour force, they hold only 16 per cent of board of director seats and fewer than 5 per cent of the top jobs (CEO positions). Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, v. 29, n. 6, p. 549-572, 2010. 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